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COVID-19 Vaccines for People Who Would Like to Have a Baby

What You Need to Know About COVID-19 Vaccination and Fertility

  • CDC recommends COVID-19 vaccines for everyone ages 6 months and older, including people who are pregnant, breastfeeding, trying to get pregnant now, or might become pregnant in the future and getting boosters, if eligible. Learn which vaccines are available by age and how to stay up to date with your COVID-19 vaccination.

  • There is currently no evidence that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause fertility problems (problems trying to get pregnant) in women or men.

  • COVID-19 can make you very sick during pregnancy. Additionally, if you have COVID-19 during pregnancy, you are at increased risk of complications that can affect your pregnancy and developing baby.

CDC and Medical Professionals Recommend COVID-19 Vaccination for People Who Want to Have Children

Evidence continues to grow showing that COVID-19 vaccination is safe and effective during pregnancy

Professional medical organizations serving people of reproductive age, including adolescents, emphasize that there is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccination causes problems with fertility.1–5

Pregnancy After Vaccination

Many people have become pregnant after receiving a COVID-19 vaccine, including some who got vaccinated during COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials.6-8 In addition, a recent report using the v-safe COVID-19 vaccine pregnancy safety monitoring system data showed that 4,800 people had a positive pregnancy test after receiving the first dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Another report using data from eight U.S. healthcare systems documented more than 1,000 people who completed COVID-19 vaccination (with any COVID-19 vaccine) before becoming pregnant.

No Evidence that COVID-19 Vaccines Affect Fertility

There is currently no evidence that vaccine ingredients or antibodies made following COVID-19 vaccination would cause any problems with becoming pregnant now or in the future.

  • Recent studies have found no differences in pregnancy success rates among women who had antibodies from COVID-19 vaccines or from a recent COVID-19 infection, and women who had no antibodies, including for patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedures (e.g., in vitro fertilization).11-13

  • A study of more than 2,000 females aged 21-45 years and their partners found that COVID-19 vaccination of either partner did not affect the likelihood of becoming pregnant.14

Like with all vaccines, scientists continue to study COVID-19 vaccines carefully and will continue to report findings as they become available.

Limited, Temporary Impact of COVID-19 Vaccines on Menstrual Cycles

Results from recent research studies 15,16 show that people who menstruate may observe small, temporary changes in menstruation after COVID-19 vaccination, including:

  • Longer-lasting menstrual periods

  • Shorter intervals between periods

  • Heavier bleeding than usual

Despite these temporary changes in menstruation, there is no evidence that COVID-19 vaccines cause fertility problems.

Research Studies of Fertility in Healthy Men

  • Currently, no evidence shows that any vaccines, including COVID-19 vaccines, cause male fertility problems. A recent small study of 45 healthy men who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine looked at sperm characteristics, like quantity and movement, before and after vaccination. Researchers found no significant changes in these sperm characteristics after vaccination.17

    • However, one study found that COVID-19 infection may be associated with a decline in fertility for men for up to 60 days after infection.

  • Fever from any illness has been associated with a short-term decrease in sperm production in healthy men.18 Although fever can be a side effect of COVID-19 vaccination, there is no current evidence that fever after COVID-vaccination affects sperm production. Fever is also a common symptom of COVID-19 infection.

Safety Monitoring

COVID-19 vaccines are undergoing the most intense safety monitoring in U.S. history. Data continue to accumulate and show that COVID-19 vaccines are safe and effective for use before and during pregnancy.

Managing Side Effects

If you have side effects after COVID-19 vaccination, talk to your healthcare provider about taking over-the-counter medicine, such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen, or antihistamines, for any pain or discomfort you may experience, including fever. You can take these medications to relieve short-term side effects after getting vaccinated if you have no medical reasons that prevent you from taking these medications.

Fever, for any reason, has been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Fever in pregnancy may be treated with acetaminophen as needed, in moderation, and in consultation with a healthcare provider. It is not recommended you take these medicines before vaccination to try to prevent side effects. Learn about other ways to relieve side effects.

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